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市场调研酒店产品需求导向定价法

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来源:【人和时代·中国】vi名片设计公司 发布时间:2012-05-09 11:25:40 查看次数:

市场调研酒店产品需求导向定价法
    需求导向定价法不再是以成本为基础,而是以顾客对酒店产品的理解和认识程度为依据进行酒店产品定价。需求导向定价法是市场导向观念的产物,它主要包括理解价值定价法和需求差别定价法。
1.理解价值定价法
    理解价值定价法是根据顾客认知的酒店产品价值以及对价值的肯定程度的高低来进行定价。这种方法认为,某一酒店产品在市场上的价格和该产品的质量、服务水平等,在顾客的心目中都有一定的价值。酒店销售自己产品的价格和顾客的认知价值是否一致是酒店的产品能否顺利销售出去的关键,因此,如果一家酒店想采用这种方法来为自己的产品进行定价,必须做到以下两点:
   (1)酒店产品的价格要尽量的向顾客的主观认知去靠拢。这就需要酒店运用各种市场调研的手段以及营销的经验,尽可能全面地收集顾客对自己酒店产品价格的评价,从而为本酒店制定一个合理的产品价格提供有力的支持和依据。
   (2)酒店要尽量改变顾客的主观价值评价,这就需要酒店运用各种市场宣传手段,对顾客进行合理的适度的引导,从而在一定程度上改变顾客既定的价值评判标准,并对酒店所制定的现行价格认可。
    但是,应该指出,现在又很多酒店并不采用这种定价方法,他们在定价的时候还是不自觉地参照其他同档酒店的产品的销售价格,这样一来,各个酒店的产品在无形之中就存在着一种比价关系,这种比价关系的基础就是认知价值。
2.需求差别定价法
    需求差别定价法的基础理论是对用一个产品或者服务,制定出两种或多种价格,运用在各个需求强度不同的细分市场上。例如,北京著名的十几家五星级酒店都有不同档次的客房标准门市价,以满足不同类顾客的需求,比如别针对外国友人、华人以及港澳台同胞等进行定价。如果在不存在竞争的情况下,决定差价的原则是以获得最实际利益,同时又不会引起顾客的不满为标准。如果在有竞争的情况下,一些酒店运用这种方法,把自己的最低等级的价格定到比竞争对手的最低价格还要低,这样一来,不仅可以使得自己在酒店在市场竞争之中处于有利地位,又可以获得较高的经济效益。但是,酒店在使用需求差别定价法的时候要注意以下几个问题:
   (1)等级差价是按质论价的原则的具体运用。酒店客房各个方面的水平不同,比如面积、装潢、位置、朝向、结构以及内部的设施设备,都应该反映在价格的差别上,因此价格分等应该可以体现出客房的等级,要使顾客相信客房的定价的差别是合情合理的。
   (2)等级差别的差价大小要适宜。这是说在酒店内部不同等级的客房的价格不要相差太多,如果相差太大的话,会使不同的客人产生不同的心理情绪,住高档客房的顾客可能会觉得自己的消费太高了,而住抵挡客房的顾客有可能产生自卑的心态,从而使酒店的高档和抵挡市场都产生不良的影响。另外,有的酒店采用固定的差价来确定不同等级的房间,比如,三个等级分为100元、90元和80元。相邻的两个等级的差价均为固定的10元。还有的酒店采用相等的百分比差价来确定价格,比如五个等级的房价分别是100元、120元、144元、173元、243元。相邻的等级的差价均为20%,这样,较低的几种房价之间的差额比较小,在酒店供给紧张时,原先要接受100元房价的客人便可以去接受120元的产品。而对于选择高价的酒店客房者来说,又不会过于计较酒店房间的价格,酒店将价格定得较高一点对他们的入住也不会有什么影响。很显然,这两种方法里,后者有明显的竞争优势。
   (3)酒店房价差别定价方法要与市场细分相联系。比如说商务散客就对价格挑剔较少,一般来说,散客房价要比团队房价高出10%到20%,因此,旅游接待酒店和商务型酒店就要根据各自接待的对象定出合乎实际的差价,具体评估自己酒店的客源市场收水平之后,在制定符合自己酒店市场定位的合理价格,进而巩固自己在细分市场的地位并提升形象。

Market research hotel product demand-oriented pricing
    Demand-oriented pricing is no longer based on the cost-based pricing, but based on customer understanding and knowledge of hotel products. Demand-oriented pricing concept of market-oriented product, which includes the understanding of the value of pricing and demand for differential pricing method.
(1) understand the value pricing
    Understand the value pricing is based on consumers' perception of the hotel product value and recognize the value of the level of pricing. This method, the price of a hotel product in the market and the product quality, service levels, in the eyes of the customer has a certain value. Hotel sales price of their products and customer perceived value is consistent with the hotel's products successful sell out of key, so if a hotel would like to use this approach to pricing of their products, you must do the following two :
   (1) the price of the hotel product to try to move closer to the subjective perception of the customer. This requires hotels to use a variety of means of market research and marketing experience, and as comprehensively as possible to collect the customer's evaluation of their hotel price, in order to develop the hotel with a reasonable price to provide strong support and the basis for
   (2) Hotel to try to change the customer's subjective valuation, which requires the hotel to use a variety of marketing tools, reasonable and modest guide the customer to change the customer's established value criteria, and thus to a certain extent, and Hotel to develop the existing price of recognition.
    However, it should be pointed out that now many hotels do not use this pricing method, pricing or unconsciously refer to the sales price of the products of other hotels with the file, so that the products of each hotel in the invisible there is a parity this parity relationship is based on perceived value.
(2) demand differential pricing
    The basic theory of the demand differential pricing a product or service, and work out two or more prices, the use of different market segments in the various demand intensity. For example, the famous more than a dozen five-star hotel has rooms of different grades of standard Rack Rate, to meet different customer needs, such as pricing for foreigners, the Chinese and Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan compatriots do not. If in case there is no competition, decided to spread the principles are the most practical interests, while not caused by customer dissatisfaction as a standard. If you have a competition, some hotels use this method, the lowest level of price lower than the lowest competitor's price, so that not only can make their own among the competition in the market is in the hotel an advantageous position, they can obtain a higher economic efficiency. However, the hotel in the demand differential pricing to pay attention to the following questions:
   (1) Level difference is the concrete application of the principle according to quality. Hotel rooms in all aspects of different levels, such as size, decor, location, orientation, structure and internal facilities and equipment should be reflected in the price difference between the price classification should reflect the room level, make the customer believe that the rooms The difference between the pricing is reasonable.
   (2) the difference between size of the level of difference to be appropriate. This is the different levels within the hotel room prices do not differ too much, much different, make different guests have different psychological and emotional, and live in high-end rooms, customers may feel their own consumption is too high, while the The rooms of housing to withstand the customer may have low self-esteem mentality, so that the high-end hotel and resist market have an adverse effect. In addition, some hotels with a fixed difference to determine the different levels of room, for example, the three levels is divided into 100 yuan, 90 yuan and 80 yuan. The difference of the two adjacent grades are fixed $ 10. Some hotels to determine the price equal to the percentage difference, for example, five levels of housing prices is 100 yuan, 120 yuan, 144 yuan, 173 yuan, 243 yuan. The difference of the adjacent grade are 20%, this way, the difference between the lower some prices is relatively small, tight supply in the hotel, guests originally received 100 yuan house prices will be able to receive 120 yuan of products . As for the choice of high-priced hotel rooms who, without too much care about the hotel room rates, hotel price high point of their stay would not have any impact. Obviously, these two methods, the latter has a clear competitive advantage.
   (3) hotel rates differential pricing method to be linked with market segmentation. For example, on the business FIT price picky less, in general, better prices than the team prices 10 percent to 20 percent higher, so the tourist hotels and business hotels should be based on their reception of the object set out in line with the actual difference, the specific assessment of the source markets, income level of their hotel in the formulation of the reasonable price of the hotel market positioning, thereby strengthening their position in the market segments and enhance the image.

 

(版权所有:转载请注明来源于【人和时代·中国】 http://www.rhtimes.com 作者:先锋)


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